• Native fish Many of these are ‘priority pollutants’, ocean; viii) ban of microbeads in personal care. India generates around 56 lakh tonnes of plastic waste annually and Delhi being the highest generator of plastic waste in India accounts for 9,600 mt per day among the top ten cities, followed by Chennai, Kolkata, Mumbai, Bangalore and few others. The downside is China, Indonesia, Philippines, Vietnam and Sri Lanka, which between them contribute 56% of global plastic waste. They save fuel and reduce carbon dioxide emissions by providing light materials for cars and airplanes. << Land-based sources of plastic debris contribute 80% of the plastic debris in the marine environment, with densely populated or industrialised areas being the major sources due to littering, plastic bag usage and solid waste disposal, for example (Derraik, 2002). /Rect [196.5 59.8800010681 290.7600097656 69.3000030518] Waste that we see in our surroundings is also known as garbage. /Length 32 0 R River plastic emissions to the world’s oceans. On average, it was found that a rural household generates about 15.9 gof plastic waste per day. Distribution of single-use plastic production by region (2014) 4 Figure 1.4. /Type /Page Waste can be categorized by municipal waste, and industrial waste 3. Attachment of water species by plastic debris can cause starvation, suffocation, laceration, infection, reproduction, reduced success, and mortality, ... Till date more than 300 million tonnes of plastic has been synthesized worldwide. Sources of plastic debris 2.1. /Kids [3 0 R 4 0 R 5 0 R 6 0 R 7 0 R] Dieldrin and PCB levels are highest around Great Britain and DDT levels highest in the Baltic and Gulf of St. biodiversity, vi) effects of plastic additives; vii) global marine plastic pollution “hot spots” and viii) adsorption of organic and inorganic chemicals by different types of plastic; viii) factors related to adsorption of contaminants by plastics ix) innovative solutions to mitigate the plastic pollution across the globe. • Pharmaceuticals Plastics can be either found in natural substances or may be man-made. /Contents 23 0 R • Sustainable Development Goals /MediaBox [0 0 595.3800048828 841.9799804688] 544: 297; 5. • Climate-Smart Aquaculture Reclamation systems differ from country to country and may even be different regionally. ; 3. Marine animals are affected by the ingestion and entanglement of plastic litter. Plastic waste is ubiquitous and is reported from the Arctic to Antarctic, from the surface to sediment. Evidence based examples are illustrated in the article with viable solution recommended for implementation. Plastic Waste. M. Schlummer, in Polymer Green Flame Retardants, 2014. 2. PLOS One. This statistic displays the sources of plastic waste in the United Kingdom (UK) from 2018 to 2013, by sector. Where does plastic come from? 118 (1-2).17-26. Recently many countries, including Pakistan, Yemen, Bangladesh, South Africa, India, Nigeria, and Kenya, have banned the plastic bags because of the pressing concerns over the negative and hazardous impact on the water, land, and marine ecosystem and natural environment. Because of the non-biodegradable nature, plastic causes many negative and hazardous impacts on the ecosystem and environment. © 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. 73(2):230-239. doi: 10.1007/s00244-017. Figure 3 – Composition of daily plastic waste discarded . << >> Plastic pollution is ubiquitous throughout the marine environment, yet estimates of the global abundance and weight of floating plastics have lacked data, particularly from the Southern Hemisphere and remote regions. Although some marine organisms have been shown to ingest plastic, few studies have investigated the ecological effects of plastic waste on animals. • Community Engagement with climate change Plastic packaging waste generation, 2014 (million Mt) 5 Figure 1.6. The plastic Ocean. PCBs and chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides such as DDTs and HCHs (BHCs) were measured in air, water, ice and snow samples collected around the Japanese research stations in Antarctica and adjacent oceans during December 1980 to March 1982. 2017. Domestic Waste: Domestic waste is generated due to various household activities. Plastic pollution is capable of affecting land, waterways and oceans as a large percentage of marine and land creatures have died due to this unnecessary evil owing to the fact that plastic is non biodegradable and when disposed, it causes hazards to soil and also emits toxic gasses when exposed or heated. /Group 18 0 R Nature. ; The first synthetic plastic — Bakelite — was produced in 1907, marking the beginning of the global plastics industry. Plastic waste is a relatively ne… /Contents 14 0 R In developed countries, poor awareness of societies on plastic materials, poor collection of waste materials and their treatments, high run-off and floods due to rain are important pointed sources of plastic materials, namely plastic bags and water bottles, from/to the environment (agricultural farmlands, surface waters) which undermines soil and water qualities and threatens human and … Plastic can harm fish, birds and turtles (e.g. The paper presents a generic overview of plastic waste inventorization, composition and its effects on health and environment. entanglement of animals or swallowing pieces of plastics and causing infection, starvation and even mortality), ... Large plastic items, such as discarded fishing lines and nets, can cause attachment to invertebrates, birds, mammals, and turtles, salted grasses, and corals. 352(6290):1213-1216. doi: /Subtype /Link They can come from a variety of land and ocean-based sources; enter the water in many ways; and impact the ocean and Great Lakes. of Europe’s p lastic waste was recycled, another third ended up in landfills, and from the rest only the energy was recovered. Emerging three-dimensional printing technology that uses plastic materials may save human lives by enabling medical innovation. It blocks drainage lines and fill up land space causing floods and erosion thereby causing deterioration of the Nigerian roads. /Resources 16 0 R Electronic sources of waste. When comparing between four size classes, two microplastic ,4.75 mm and meso- and macroplastic .4.75 mm, a tremendous loss of microplastics is observed from the sea surface compared to expected rates of fragmentation, suggesting there are mechanisms at play that remove ,4.75 mm plastic particles from the ocean surface. /Tabs /S Lönnstedt OM and, Eklöv P. 2016. >> Epub 2017 May 22; 8. Presentation: Plastic Pollution- Sources, Global Production, Global “Hotspots”, Impacts on Biodivers... PCB and chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides in Antarctic atmosphere and hydrosphere. /CropBox [0 0 595.3800048828 841.9799804688] /Rotate 0 Together, we can cut down on plastic waste and reduce the amount of marine debris polluting the planet’s oceans and waterways. Cressey, D. 2016. /Group 24 0 R This study can benefit the scholarly community, because it brings more light to freshwater ecosystems, while most sources in the field focus on marine ecosystems. /Tabs /S Many steps are necessary to be taken by the governments to regulate the plastic businesses and to bring innovations in the waste management. /Type /Pages Management Sources of Plastic Waste: Plastic waste can be mainly classified as: (1)Municipal Waste (2)Industrial Waste Plastic wastes represent a considerable part of municipal wastes, while huge amounts of plastic waste arise as a byproduct in industry and agriculture Of the total plastic waste, over 78 wt% of this total corresponds to thermoplastics and the remaining to thermosets /F 4 /Version /1.4 /Contents 20 0 R • Ocean Acidification Proc. It also highlights that low-carbon economic development (LCD) (a development that emits low/less greenhouse gases) can be achieved by adopting simple measures. Man-made plastics are known as synthetic plastics. Plastic pollution is capable of affecting land, waterways and oceans as a large percentage of marine and land creatures have died due to the fact that plastic is non-biodegradable and it causes hazards to soil. 2.2 Postconsumer waste. 409, 3309–3324; 9. Plastics are persistent large-scale pollutants, and plastic debris (such as bottles, straws, containers, and plastic wrap) and particulates have been found in many environmental niches, from Mount Everest to the bottom of the sea. The results revealed that the types of plastic waste generated by these two communitiesincluded: Polyethylene Terephathalate (PET), High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE), Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC), LowDensity Polyethylene (LDPE), Poly propylene (PP), Polystyrene (PS), Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) and otherplastic materials layered from other types. Sources of plastics . rity (agriculture, livestock, fisheries/seafood), health security (human and other biota), environmental security (ecosystems and biodiversity) and social security (gender, livelihoods, poor/marginalised/socially isolated people). Hence, waste reduction of this type is given the highest priority in solid waste management plans, because it reduces the demand placed on the management system. • Climate change dumping (mismanaged plastic waste). endobj /Group 21 0 R 80% of plastic pollution originates from land-based sources with the rest coming It (LCD) aims to reduce GHG emissions consistent with the 2°C rise limit (as agreed in Paris Conference in Dec 2015) and achieve new global sustainable development goals (2016-2030) while accommodating the expected economic and population growth. /Contents 11 0 R This paper also appraises the concept of 4R′s in PWM and their role in circular economy. << We have also produced an FAQs on Plastics page which attempts to answer additional common questions on the topic. /F 4 8 0 obj Marine Pollution Bulletin. endobj >> This paper therefore seeks to identify methods favorable for recycling plastic wastes in Nigeria as a tool for solution to diversification and for implementation. The Grantham Institute Briefing Paper No 19. • Low-Carbon Homes /Type /Page Sci. • Low-Carbon Development India pledges to combat plastic pollution as part of the World Environment Day, 2018. Land-based debris. The primary aim of this review article is to identify the commonality among those research papers and understand the environmental impacts of various practices being adopted in C&D waste management. problem. Plastics are the most common form of marine debris. plastic bags are generally used when curb service is provided and the homeowner is responsible for placing the bags along the curb. /Parent 2 0 R Furthermore, individuals exposed to microplastics do not respond to olfactory threat cues, which greatly increases predator-induced mortality rates. A total of 109 households (54 in Zikhotheni and 55 in Zombodze Emuva) were selectedusing simple random sampling. plastic waste recycled back into the economy since 1950. Rivers are a major source of plastic waste into the oceans. /Filter /FlateDecode /StructParent 103 The targeted development sectors are i) agriculture, Livestock, fisheries, aquaculture; ii) Buildings; iii) Forestry; iv) Industry; v) Power; vi) Transport; vii) Tourism; viii) Water; ix) Waste, e articles, mostly 2-3 pages will be in the form of questions and answers to assist global communities to have handy and quick information on various environmental and sustainability aspects (see below). /Count 5 In the United States, Europe, Australia and Japan, plastics are, Mismanaged plastic (plastic dumped openly). Responsible production and consumption of plastics, emerging trends in PWM in relation to Integrated Waste Management (IWM) are highlighted. << 263-265; 2.Xanthos, D and Walker, T.R. /Parent 2 0 R • Endocrine disputing chemicals >> /StructParents 22 2011. Plastics are essential and ubiquitous materials in our daily lives and address numerous societal challenges. It is intending to present and disseminate complex data and technical information in a most simplified manner (short, simple, and quick), some of the simple articles/fact-sheets in the pipeline and will be available via this project update (listed alphabetically, not in preference): is reduced. << plastic resin pellets, losses from accidents and transport, and blowing from landfill sites (Allsopp et al., 2006). Plastic pollution in freshwater and marine environments have been identified as a global The management of plastic waste is to be planned in such a manner that the plastic waste generated from various sources is suitably taken care of. It blocks drainage lines and fill up land space causing floods and erosion thereby causing deterioration of the Nigeria roads. In short, this report gives an insight of plastic waste generation and management within the overall waste management system in the country or city, (ii) engage all relevant stakeholders for developing the plastic waste management strategy and its implementation, (iii) identify alternative actions and sustainable see the weblink: https://sites.google.com/site/pollutionwqbangladesh/, gas (GHG) emissions, reduce vulnerabilities of climate change impacts on social, economic, environmental sectors/assets and integrate/incorporate climate change as a risk in development programmes. • Sustainable energy << Mismanaged plastic waste in top 20, dumps or open, uncontrolled landfills, where it is not fully contained). Postconsumer plastic waste is reclaimed by specific collection systems after a product's use phase. Therefore, an urgent need for recycling plastic wastes into a solution for wealth creation is fundamental in Nigeria. Disposal of C&D waste leads to faster depletion of available landfill space. In order to manage waste, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Solid Waste Act favor an integrated solid waste man-agement strategy that includes 1) reducing the amount Highlights Plastic wasteis a looming global concern as it could take up to 1 000 years to decompose plastic materials in the ecosystem. The study investigated plastic waste management practices in the rural households of the Kingdom of Eswatiniusing Zikhotheni and Zombodze Emuva communities as case study sites. /Rotate 0 Chlorinated hydrocarbons were also detected in snow, ice, lake water and sea water samples, in which rather high concentrations were found in snow and ice samples. It is anticipated that global plastic waste totals to 4.9 billion tonnes and will reach 12 billion tonnes by 2050. /Rotate 0 Simon, N and Schulte, M.L. However, with the declination of oil prices, increase in plastic wastes and the world tending towards energy and sustainable development, therefore, an urgent need for recycling this waste of plastics into a solution for wealth creation is fundamental in Nigeria. /Rotate 0 These non-recycled plastics (NRP), found in the municipal solid waste (MSW) stream, could provide an abundant source of alternative energy /MediaBox [0 0 595.3800048828 841.9799804688] Science. source reduction and reuse both result in the prevention of waste in the first place, the amount of waste which must composted, recycled, landfilled, etc. Plastics contribute to high-performance insulation materials that reduce energy consumption, and plastic packaging enhances food safety. This paper therefore seeks to identify favorable methods for recycling plastic wastes in Nigeria as a tool for solution to diversification and implementation. outflows, and transport by wind or tides [5]. It is also acceptable as a last option where sanitary disposal is required to control diseases or pests and in the case of disaster and/or other emergency (Stockholm Convention, 2017). /Tabs /S Nigeria, which is the biggest oil exporting country in Africa, relies mainly on the proceeds of the oil trade for its GDP and based strategy in growing her economy. There’s many different types of waste 2. /Group 15 0 R • Sea-Level Rise Plastics wastes are also harmful to human health; they may contain harmful acids which may lead to death. Science. • Food waste Construction and demolition (C&D) activities generate a large amount of waste throughout their life cycle. /Resources 13 0 R Here we report an estimate of the total number of plastic particles and their weight floating in the world’s oceans from 24 expeditions (2007–2013) across all five sub-tropical gyres, costal Australia, Bay of Bengal and the Mediterranean Sea conducting surface net tows (N5680) and visual survey transects of large plastic debris (N5891). >> all be filtered out, making wastewater treatment p, distances floating in seawater, or sediment, Large plastic items, such as discarded fishing rope an, invertebrates, birds, mammals, and turtles, s, species by plastic debris can cause starvation, suff, Ingestion of plastics by aquatic organisms is one of the m, of plastic, which can accumulate in their digestive s, cause physical damage or blockage of the int, ‘environmentally relevant’ concentrations of, Plastic along shorelines creates an aesthetic iss, losses are associated with reduced tourism, vessel damage, impairment in marine environments, shipping, energy production, fishing, and a, Figure 2. << plastic waste through source reduction—the process of minimizing the amount of plastic used. Plastic waste could be recycled and used to produce composite materials. /BS 30 0 R endobj Plastic Bags (11.18%) The intrinsic evil of plastic bags is largely known by now, as reusables have … /StructParents 24 /Resources 19 0 R The studyconcluded that most of the rural households are still using traditional methods of managing plastic waste, eventhough recommended plastic waste management practices such as reusing and recycling were found amongstsome households in Zombodze Emuva. /MediaBox [0 0 595.3800048828 841.9799804688] >> This review paper emphasizes the hazardous of single-use polyethylene shopping bags on the environment and the emerging trends to tackle the management of plastic wastes. /F 4 Lithner et al. This is our main data entry on plastics, with a particular focus on its pollution of the environment. • Metal pollution It is estimated that out of the 8.3 billion metric tons of plastic produced globally as on date, 6.3 billion metric tons ends up as trash, whereas only 9% is recycled, 12% is incinerated and the rest 79% is accumulated in landfills. USA 113, 2430–2435; 11. /Rect [44.5200004578 50.4599990845 153.7200012207 59.8800010681] These are also called e-waste, e-scrap, or waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). /Resources 25 0 R The atmospheric concentrations of chlorinated hydrocarbons decreased in the transport process from northern lands to Antarctica, but the compositions of PCBs, Samples of seal blubber from several marine regions (Arctic, Iceland, North Sea, Baltic, and Antarctic) were analysed for chlorinated hydrocarbon contamination. However, with the declination of oil prices and increase in plastic wastes, the world is tending towards energy and sustainable development. Nature 536. /Annots [8 0 R 9 0 R 10 0 R] Natl Acad. Tackling plastic waste is one of the major issues of environmental pollution. 2 0 obj 7 0 obj Our results demonstrate that microplastic particles operate both chemically and physically on larval fish performance and development. 11 0 obj Plastic accounts for around 10% by mass of municipal waste, but up to 85% of marine debris items – most of which arrive from land-based sources. Creating public awareness regarding the healthy environment, managing wastes, alternative disposal methods, establishing the incineration mechanisms, and drop-off-areas facilities for plastic recycling also recommended to ensure a healthy environment. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2017.02. In Hong Kong, plastic waste discarded at landfills has increased by /A 29 0 R Phase out of plastic bags around the, Pesticides and organic pollutants such as polychlorinated bip, adsorb onto due to hydrophobic nature) at harm, sediments and 1 million times those occurring in se, These priority pollutants can enter the tissues of aquat, that have consumed plastic waste have pol, concentrations than in those that have not eaten, pollution including the following: i) placing c, plastic pollution originates; ii) managing m. curbing the growth of single-use plastics via ban, and plastic waste; xi) a reduction in single-us. The article briefly discusses the threats of plastic pollution to biodiversity and economy, plastic waste is a carrier of ‘priority pollutants’ (DDT, PCB) and possible measures to reduce threats and risks of plastic pollution. /CropBox [0 0 595.3800048828 841.9799804688] Sixteen of the top 20 mismanaged plastic waste producers are low to middle-income countries.
2020 sources of plastic waste pdf