Discover the golden age of Muslim civilisation. [9] See Adab ad-dunya wa-d-din [The Rules of Propriety for the Wordly Life and the Religious Life]. Ibn Khaldun, Tunis, Tunisia. tr., II, p. 901; Engl. [25] Muqaddima, II, p. 935; Fr. How and in what form should the enormous accumulated corpus be transmitted? Learning itself is seen by Ibn Khaldun as the acquisition of a ‘habitus’ (malaka). L’Enseignement en Islam et en Occident au Moyen Age [Education in the Islamic World and in the West in the Middle Ages]. (Image in the public domain). , and if you can't find the answer there, please Arab muslim historian, philosopher, and statesman. 925-26; Fr. In his detailed autobiography, Ibn Khaldun went through a traditional school system which included being taught by his father. The formation of such a habitus demands a rigorous approach in which must be taken into consideration the student’s ‘receptivity’ and power to assimilate, together with the quantity of information contained in the subject to be taught and its complexity. The individual soul fulfils itself in and through knowledge. tr., II, pp. [19] Ibid., III, pp. 284-88. [28] Ibid., III, pp. 478-81; Fr. tr., pp. Introduction The great thinker Ibn Khaldun was born in Tunis, 1332 AD and died in Cairo, 1406 AD. 298-300. There was no generic term designating education as a social institution or the education system as a set of institutions, practices and items of knowledge, which in any case was not specific to Muslim society. They see to their own defence, bearing arms and keeping themselves on the alert at all times. The ideas developed by Ibn Khaldun on teaching belong to his encyclopedic presentation of the sciences. [33] Ibid., II, p. 942; Fr. Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. tr., II, p. 889; Engl. [38] Ibid., III, p. 1248; Engl. He was a keen observer of the relationship between education and society and saw education as having multiple objectives. 1008-09; Fr. [2] The author’s original title was ‘Education in Ibn Khaldun’s Muqaddima’. Muslim Heritage:Send us your e-mail address to be informed about our work. Figure 9: Front cover of An Arab Philosophy of History: Selections from the Prolegomena of Ibn Khaldun of Tunis by Charles Issawi (translator) (Darwin Press, 1987). 474-79; Fr. Abu Zayd 'Abd al-Rahman ibn Khaldun came from an illustrious family and enjoyed an excellent education in his youth. 816, 847; Engl. Biography Arab Scholar Medieval era Name Ibn Khaldun [Abū Zayd ‘Abdu r-Raḥman bin Muḥammad bin Khaldūn al-Ḥaḍramī] Birth 27 May, 1332/732 AH Death 19 March, 1406/808 AH School / Tradition Ash'ari [It was instrumental in drastically changing the direction of Islamic theology, separating its development radically from that of theology in the Christian world.] A Symposium Organized by School of Law Discusses the Future of Mediation Announcement About Education Process For 2020-2021 Fall Semester Trilingualism at IHU from the Students’ Perspective Ibn Haldun University… 732-808)” [2], by Abdesselam Cheddadi, in Prospects: the quarterly review of comparative education (Paris, UNESCO: International Bureau of Education), vol. Faced with such a situation, it is understandable that he should speak out against the propensity of his age to dwell on the study of the sciences described as ‘auxiliary’ or ‘instrumental’—such as grammar, logic and legal principles. An overly severe attitude on the part of the teacher leads to the most harmful consequences, particularly for young children. Ibn Khaldun’s own classification, his distinction between the intellectual and transmitted sciences, and the strength and weaknesses of his scheme, are discussed. Ibn-e-Khaldun was a famous historian, a great philosopher, and also an incredible educationist. ; Fr. [34] Ibid. The accent was placed rather on the individual soul, which had to be corrected (taqwim), improved (tahdhib), reformed (islah) and healed of its sickness (mudawat). 346, 378. Ibn Khaldun’s own upbringing and education greatly affected his phil osophical school of thought, his g eneral view . the network of teachers, across space and time, who guarantee the quality of the knowledge transmitted. tr., II, pp. In all three examples the question of values and their transmission is no longer presented as an exclusively individual matter. ‘Indeed’, he says, ‘the only natural means of attaining truth is the natural readiness to think, once it is relieved of all false ideas and the thinker places his or her entire confidence in divine mercy. The term art (sina’a) is used by Ibn Khaldun in a very wide acceptation, covering even the vocational and practical aspects of scientific activities. The grandfather of the Banu Khaldun was Othman ibn Bakr ibn Khalid, also called Khaldun. More important, Ibn Khaldun makes no use of a general concept in speaking of education. His family's high rank enabled Ibn Khaldun to study with prominent teachers in Maghreb. They take shape when a person is still in his or her ‘state of natural simplicity’. [4] Cf. Qurayshi, M.A., The Educational Ideas of Ibn Khaldun. This is all the more surprising as he accustoms us elsewhere to a systematic approach to the main phenomena of life in society. [42] Ibid., III, pp. The version we republish hereafter was reedited and revised; we publish it with a slightly different title, new images and captions. Figure 7: Front cover of Ibn Khaldun: An Essay in Reinterpretation by Aziz Al-Azmeh (Central European University Press, 2003). On the other hand, the aspects involving training, knowledge and knowhow are brought together in the two successive chapters dealing with the arts and sciences. 209 talking about this. Ibn Khaldun wondered how the average student could be required to assimilate it all. tr., II, p. 418. The courage of rural folk, like the corrupted morals of townspeople and the phenomenon of imitation, do not depend only on subjective will, nor are they the result of incitement: they are the outcome of actual conditions. General concepts such as ta’dib (educate) or ta’lim (instruct) concerned individuals and comprised acts or relations involving person-to-person relationships. Ibn Khaldun understood society as cyclical; all institutions dovetailed and influenced one another. E. Gellner, Nations and nationalism, Oxford, Basil Blackwell Ltd., 1983, pp. His views on education and the deep psychological insight in the educational process and development of human mind and body tagged him as a great educator too. The body composed of scholars and the literati was open, non-centralized, non-hereditary, non-exclusive, with a fluid organization that implied no formal hierarchy [3], thus giving rise to a relatively broad education and teaching system that in many ways prefigured our modern systems [4]. Philosophers such as al-Farabi [7] and Miskawayh [8] proposed a theory of education whose end was to allow human beings to reach the perfection proper to their nature. He received a classical Islamic education, studying the Qur’an, which he memorized by heart, Arabic linguistics; the basis for understanding the Qur’an, hadith, sharia (law) and fiqh (jurisprudence). tr., III, pp. 1021, 1025; Fr. At another level, al-Mawardi [9] proposed an education programme reconciling worldly and religious interests, and al-Ghazali [10], in his celebrated Hiyal’ alum al-din [The Revival of the Religious Sciences], formulated a theoretical basis and devised a practical method for attaining the religious ideal of the good Muslim. Education, according to Ibn- Khaldun, is seen as a social process in terms of its overall essence, content, function and objectives to the extent that this process cannot be separated from the society especially when it is the means to express individual’ needs on one … [36] Ibid., III, pp. Ibn Khaldun’s pedagogical conception is based on the central concept of the habitus, mentioned earlier in connection with the learning of the arts. Be the first to rate this post. All habitus, says Ibn Khaldun, are necessarily corporal. He received a traditional education that was typical of his family’s rank and status. Works about Ibn Khaldun, education and Islam. (Casablanca, 2005). 873-75; Engl. 1222-26; Engl. 824-25; Engl. The question of the teaching of the sciences Ibn Khaldun approaches from his concept of the habitus. Leiden, The Netherlands: E. J. Brill, 1984. [26] Ibid., III, pp. Generally known as "Ibn Khaldūn" after a remote ancestor, he was born in Tunis in AD 1332 (732 A.H.) into an upper-class Andalusian family of Arab descent, the Banu Khaldun. Notes 56, No. Technique, though understood as something at once practical and intellectual (amr ‘amali fikri), is reduced to a skill that may be learned only by observation and imitation (naql al-mu’ayana). Ibn Khaldun, therefore, urged the historian to become erudite, accurate in observation and skilled in comparing text with subtext in order to be capable of effective criticism and clarification. So too are his views on learning capacity, memorization, curriculum, strict teachers, and the breadth and depth of education. Keywords: 9.3. It transmits itself spontaneously from one generation to the next and needs to be neither learned nor taught. The gulf between the rural and urban worlds is perceived as a natural consequence of the passage from the ‘necessary’ to the ‘superfluous’, from the ‘simple’ to the ‘complex’. For one thing, it cannot receive several ‘dyes’ at a time; then, when it has taken on one of these, its capacity to receive others gradually diminishes [31]. Figure 4: Autograph of Ibn Khaldun (upper left corner) on a manuscript of his Muqaddima.   Public users can however freely search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter. The classification of knowledge in the classical Islamic tradition functioned as a guide to the range of sciences in existence at the time and the relationship between them. Ibn Khaldun barely mentions such places as colleges (madrasas) or convents (khanqas, rubut), which he considers only in the role of material assistance to students and teachers (board and lodging) [43]. Explanations and commentaries must be exhaustive and all divergent points of view examined. 16 May 2013 16 May 2013. 16-61; J.E. It appears rather as a private, individual matter at the level of each of its three components: science, teachers and students. He learned first at the hands of his father who was a scholarly person who was not involved in Now the subject must be looked at from every angle and generalizations transcended. What today we understand by the term ‘education’—the replication of individuals and groups, firstly at the level of values and secondly at that of knowledge and know-how—is found in the Muqaddima only in a scattered and incomplete fashion, in an order and pattern whose meaning escapes us at first sight. and Engl. 1. He begins by assuming, in a sort of philosophical anthropological postulate, that human beings, who are endowed with the faculty of thought, organize their relations with the world and each other according to laws and rules that each individual learns through his or her own personal experience, and especially by impregnation from the family and cultural milieu. However, upon closer view we discover that this ambiguity and these lacunae in fact reflect the state of the Muslim system of education, and we are forced to admit that, in this field as in many others connected with the knowledge of Muslim society, Khaldun’s contribution is the most complete at our disposal. tr., III, p. 965 ff. G. Makdisi, The Rise of Colleges, Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press, 1981; The Rise of Humanism in Classical Islam and the Christian West, Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press, 1990. On the question of the content of science teaching, Ibn Khaldun limits himself to a few remarks inspired by the actual state of education in his time. Only this last type of knowledge, the subject of the sciences, gives us the possibility of reaching perfection of soul [28]. In the cities, the arts and sciences develop as production expands and diversifies, as wealth increases and as a taste for the superfluous and luxury comes into being [22]. tr., II, p. 1222; Engl. He therefore recommends moderate use of authority and punishment, taking into consideration the personality of the pupil and the need ‘to instruct without afflicting the pupil and killing his or her spirit’. tr., p. 1217-18; Engl. In other respects, Ibn Khaldun adopts an approach that could without hesitation be described as sociological. Lastly, it is important to note that Ibn Khaldun brings up twice, although both times in an incidental manner, the matter of the inculcation of religious values. 1243-45; Fr. 1248-49; Engl. Townspeople use any means, good or bad, to cope, ineluctably entering ‘the ways of immorality’ [16]. An affluent life leads to the search for pleasure, the appearance of new habits and of new needs. Among townsmen, however, this virtue is nearly absent since they are brought up in a state of dependence, sheltered behind their walls and protected by their militia and their governors; they are used to peace and comfort. More important, Ibn Khaldun makes no use of a general concept of education. The subject is again studied, in extenso, from the beginning, but this time the most complex and obscure points are gone into. tr., II, p. 301. IbnKhaldunhas emphasized the importance of science, education and teaching. For in the first generation … The first of these is a preparatory stage. Though perfectible, the sciences are conceived as constituting a closed universe, or at least one tending towards a certain completion. The sciences, particularly religious and literary science, had undergone considerable development under Islam, and Ibn Khaldun describes it in detail. Its object is to familiarize the student with the subject being taught and to prepare him or her to grasp its problems. We then gradually gain ‘form’ ‘thanks to the knowledge we acquire through our organs’. [43] Ibid., III, pp. Figure 8: Front cover of the English translation of the famous essay Ibn Khaldun: The Birth of History and the Past of the Third World by Yves Lacoste (Verso, 1997, Paperback). tr., pp. He fails here to disengage himself from a general attitude we find in philosophers, religious thinkers and moralists, one that might be called ‘edifying’. 1249-53; Fr. tr., pp. His family were from Andalusia.Born in Tunisia in 1332, Khaldun served the governments of the day in many ways. He considered the permanent conflict between primitive Bedouin and highly developed urban society as a crucial factor in history. Ibn Khaldun’s own classification, his distinction between the intellectual and transmitted sciences, and the strength and weaknesses of his scheme, are discussed. [35] Ibid., III, p. 1019; Fr. In order to master any discipline and fully possess it, he says, it is necessary to acquire ‘a habitus that allows the principles and rules to be grasped, problems to be fully understood and secondary questions to be drawn from principles’ [35]. Author of An Arab Philosophy of History and others. Ibn Khaldun and Islamic Ideology. 936-39; Fr. Rural society, being satisfied with the necessary, cultivates only the simplest of the arts, such as agriculture and weaving; it has no knowledge of writing and the sciences, and though at times some of its members may take an interest in such matters they can never reach perfection [21]. [5] See H.J. The vices and defects that can be acquired are few compared to those of townspeople, and country people remain close to their original natural state and are more inclined to good [17]. Independently of this education of children and without any structural connection between the two, there was also vocational teaching to prepare the learned for various professions. So too are his views on learning capacity, memorization, curriculum, strict teachers, and the breadth and depth of education. He says it is a serious error to begin by the most abstruse problems, as do many teachers who take no account of the student’s state of preparation. tr. Theoretically available to all, covering all fields of knowledge both ancient and Muslim, homogeneous in its methods, it came to form part of institutions only on a partial basis and at a late date [5]. Logic is nothing more than a description of the act of thinking and in most cases follows it’ [38]. [18] Ibid., II, pp. 261 leaves; 26.5 x 17.5 cm, written in various hands, copied in 1140 H/1728 CE. Once it has been acquired, this disposition will not disappear. He lived in Marrakesh in Morocco for a time, and in Granada.Then he moved to Cairo, where was a judge and died in 1406.. tr., pp. Ahmad, A. But, as Ibn Khaldun points out [23], though these are ‘noble’ as to their ends, they are generally poorly paid. (Paris: Sindbad, 3rd edition, 1997, 1132 pp.). All Rights Reserved. By situating education within the rise and fall of civilizations, one can use the microcosm of the classroom to evaluate the health of society at large, particularly within the United States. These cookies do not store any personal information. Essentially ignorant, we fulfil ourselves as human beings only through knowledge. tr., pp. 424-426. His books have been translated into many languages, both in the East and the West, and have inspired subsequent development of these sciences. [40] Ibid., III, p. 1242; Fr. Both his parents died when the Black Death struck Tunis in 1349. If you think you should have access to this title, please contact your librarian. 359 of the world history of Ibn Khaldun: Kitab al-‘Ibar wa-diwan al-mubtada’ wa-al-khabar fi ayyam al-‘Arab wa-al-‘Ajam wa-al-Barbar. Civilization is for him an urban phenomenon to be realized only by local concentration and cooperation of men united under a strong dynastic rule. According to him, the real difference between mankind and other beings is the power of thought. This stage is limited to giving an overall view of the subject and emphasizing its main points. He foresees science and education as an inseparable part of prosperity. The second stage goes deeper. the network of teachers, across space and time, who guarantee the quality of the knowledge transmitted. Ibn khaldun’s life may be divided into three parts, the first of which (20 years) was occupied by his childhood and education, the second (23 years) by the continuation of his studies and by political adventures, and the third (31 years) by his life as a scholar, teacher and magistrate. However, upon closer view we discover that this ambiguity and these lacunae in fact reflect the state of the Muslim system of education, and we are forced to admit that, in this field as in many others connected with the knowledge of Muslim society, Khaldun's contribution is the most complete at our disposal. date: 05 December 2020. of knowledge and of the mind, as well as his devised division of sciences. When Ibn Khaldun attempts to trace out a history of education, he concentrates on the sanad, i.e. Such a practice is most harmful, as the student tires rapidly and becomes discouraged. 9.2. He defines it as ‘a stable quality resulting from a repeated action until its form has taken final shape’ [25]. 354-55. [16] Ibid., II, p. 888 ff. [22] Ibid., II, pp. II, p. 878-80; Engl. Tibawi, A. L., Philosophy of Muslim Education. 9.3. ; Fr. Too much time spent on the religious sciences is only further weighing down the burden borne by students and distracting them from the essential [41]. tr., III, pp. tr., pp. Al-Muqaddima. He was also excellent in mathematics, and at school, he receiv… Ibn Khaldun was born in Tunis on Ramadan 1, 732 (May 27, 1332). © Copyright FSTC Ltd 2002-2020. This basic education, religious above all, and this system of the replication of scholars, was paralleled by what could be called a system of general adult instruction. Ibn Khaldun distinguishes three types of knowledge corresponding to as many ‘degrees of thought’. Ibn Khaldun supplements these general principles with a number of practical recommendations. tr. The invention and development of the sciences meets a spiritual necessity above all. tr., II, pp. It can be illustrated by three examples—examples in which he analyses the courage of rural folk, the corruption of urban dwellers and the phenomenon of imitation. But opting out of some of these cookies may have an effect on your browsing experience. This is what clarifies their import and makes them understandable. He does not conceive of technology as a body of knowledge independent of those who possess it. Thanks to ‘empirical intelligence’ individuals are capable of discovering for themselves the rules and values that must guide their acts and their social life; but, as Ibn Khaldun points out, this would take too much time, ‘as everything that depends on experience requires time’ [14]. 1237-40; Fr. [20] Ibid., III, p. 1072 ff. In order to obtain maximum efficiency, it must be a practice (bi-‘l-mubashara) and modelled on the most perfect exemplars with the help of the best teachers, preferably following methods of direct observation (bi-‘l-mu’ayana). tr). 1253-54; Fr. Ibn Khaldun finds the explanation for this phenomenon in the fact that the dominated believe in the perfection of those who dominate them [18]. It is within this educational setting that the madrasa (college), the model of the medieval university in France and Italy and of the English ‘college’ [6] — which was later to give rise to the modern university—came into being. Figure 6: Front cover of the French translation by Vincent Monteil of the Muqaddima: Discours sur l’histoire universelle. Ibn Khaldun thinks that the soul has but fairly limited receptivity (isti’dad). tr., pp. Yet no clear awareness of a unified system of education as a fundamental component of the social system bringing together all aspects of the replication of individuals and groups had come into being. He uses this concept, which for philosophers [24] had an essentially moral and intellectual meaning, very widely to cover a vast field going from language to faith, the arts and the sciences. With the progress of civilization, science became professionalized, organizing itself according to principles and rules, making use of a specialized methodology and terminology; it was practised as a trade. Figure 5: Front cover of the most recent edition of the Arabic text of Ibn Khaldun’s Muqaddima, edited by Abdessalam al-Shaddadi. Moreover, he points out, observation shows us that ‘it is rare to find a person skilled in one art who is then capable of excelling in another and to the same degree’ [33]. ‎هي شركه متخصصه في مجال الدراسه في تركيا وتامين القبولات الجامعية في الجامعات الخاصه والحكومية‎ Intended to ‘facilitate memorization for students, they render the task harder for them’. tr., pp. The learning of language is dealt with separately. Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2013, DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198090458.001.0001, PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE ( This is true of children vis-à-vis their parents, pupils vis-à-vis their teachers, subjects vis-à-vis their princes and dominated nations vis-à-vis dominant nations; it holds true as much for custom and behaviour as for all aspects of civilization. tr., II, pp. The educational and cultural Islamic system led to the production of an abundant literature setting forth its organization and functioning, analysing its standards and values. Figure 10: Frontispice of the English translation from Arabic of the Muqaddima of Ibn Khaldun in 3 volumes by the Yale University Professor of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations Dr. Franz Rosenthal (1914-2003): The Muqaddimah : an introduction to history (New York: Pantheon Books, 1958). XXIV, no. 417-19. At birth, says Ibn Khaldun, we are entirely devoid of knowledge; we are still no more than ‘raw material’. Ibn Khaldun makes two reproaches: by trying to ‘fit a maximum number of ideas into a minimum number of words’, they are injurious to the quality of expression and lead to comprehension difficulties; and they sow confusion in the students’ minds ‘by presenting them with the ultimate findings of a subject before preparing them to take in those findings’ [40]. Going further into the matter, Ibn Khaldun perceives clearly that the inculcation of a body of knowledge is inseparable from the development of the mental aptitudes necessary for that knowledge to be assimilated. [12] Cf. tr., II, p. 878; Engl. [14] Ibid., III, p. 1012; Fr. tr., II, pp. 1017-18; Fr. Moreover, the history of the sciences is essentially epitomized for him in that of the basic works that have been composed within each subject, with their main commentaries and abstracts. 1025-26; Fr. 347-49. [13] Muqaddima, III, pp. Oxford Scholarship Online requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books within the service. At first sight, the place held by education in Ibn Khaldun’s sociology appears uncertain to say the least. Accordingly, the choice of content in the earliest instruction is of decisive importance. 1218-21; Engl. II, pp. Children were frequently placed under a tutor or received longer, more diversified instruction in a school that went well beyond the teaching of the Koran and the rules of religious practice. Individual improvement and salvation are the aims here, requiring the acquisition of certain forms of behaviour and the assimilation of certain rules and values. Ibn Khaldun limits himself here to two remarks: the arts must necessarily be learned from a master; they are highly specialized, and a person who masters one art cannot generally master a second. tr., II, p. 426. A much shorter way lies in imitating one’s parents, teachers and elders in general. tr., II, p. 888; Engl. Although ibn Khaldun strongly believed in God, he never mentioned any celestial aim for history, or any divine end at which history would come to stop. tr., II, p. 291 ff. Click here for the original version (PDF format): English version and French version. We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website. He received certification (ijazah) for all of those subjects. Two sides can be distinguished to Ibn Khaldun’s presentation, one covering the principles of teaching, the other its methods and content. Works by Ibn Khaldun The various arts, presented in relation to ‘the means of existence’, are classed according to their uses and their social importance before more systematic exposés are made on the main ones. [21] Ibid., II, pp. Chapter 3 discusses Ibn Khaldun’s thoughts on education and knowledge.
2020 ibn khaldun and education